By Coulter H. George
How did old Greek exhibit that an occasion happened at a specific time, for a definite period, or inside of a given time-frame? the reply to those questions is determined by numerous stipulations - the character of the time noun, the demanding and element of the verb, the actual historic interval of Greek in which the writer lived - that current experiences of the language don't take sufficiently under consideration. This ebook consequently examines the conditions that govern using the genitive, dative, and accusative of time, in addition to the suitable prepositional structures, essentially in Greek prose of the 5th century BC in the course of the moment century advert, but additionally in Homer. whereas the point of interest is on advancements in Greek, translations of the examples, in addition to an absolutely glossed precis bankruptcy, make it obtainable to linguists drawn to the expression of time in most cases.
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Extra resources for Expressions of Time in Ancient Greek (Cambridge Classical Studies)
1, 10. 6; non-emphatic: Mem. 1. 6. 2, three. eight. nine, Oec. five. four, Cyr. five. 1. eleven, eight. five. 2, Cyn. five. five, five. 6. There is still Mem. 2. 1. 30, that's most likely additionally emphatic, yet to a far lesser quantity than the opposite examples. a hundred thirty five ex p re s s i o ns of ti m e : s t y le , ge n re , a n d di a c h ro n y (26) φανερὸς δὲ ἐγένετο καὶ ὁ νεὼς τοῦ Ποσειδῶνος ταύτῃ τῇ νυκτὶ καόμενος And the temple of Poseidon was once conspicuous because it burned that evening (HG four. five. four) (27) κωμάζει γὰρ ἡ πόλις πᾶσα τῇδε τῇ νυκτί32 For the entire urban is celebrating in this evening (Cyr. 7. five. 25) subsequent, people with the genitive of time: (28) ὥστ’ ἐκείνης τῆς νυκτὸς οὐδεὶς ἐκοιμήθη And so not anyone slept on that evening (HG 2. 2. three) (29) καὶ ταύτης τῆς νυκτὸς σφενδονῆται μὲν εἰς διακοσίους ἐγένοντο, ἵπποι δὲ καὶ ἱππεῖς ἐδοκιμάσθησαν τῇ ὑστεραίᾳ εἰς πεντήκοντα And in this evening, the slingers got here to 2 hundred, and approximately ﬁfty horses and cavalry have been licensed at the subsequent day as ﬁt to serve (An. three. three. 20) all the final examples of the genitive of time of νυκτός have both no modiﬁer in any respect or purely the deﬁnite article, except 3 examples with τῆς ἐπιούσης, of which the next is representative:33 (30) ἁθρόαι δὲ γενόμεναι αἱ νῆες ἅπασαι ἐν Παρίῳ ἓξ καὶ ὀγδοήκοντα τῆς ἐπιούσης νυκτὸς ἀνηγάγοντο, καὶ τῇ ἄλλῃ ἡμέρᾳ περὶ ἀρίστου ὥραν ἧκον εἰς Προκόννησον And all eighty-six ships, assembling at Parium, positioned to sea at the subsequent evening, and at the subsequent day, round breakfast time, they reached Proconnesus (HG 1. 1. thirteen) One may perhaps wish to distinguish among the genitive and dative by means of ﬁnding the previous for use in additional limitative events, the latter in additional prototypical punctual contexts. And certainly examples (25) via (27) ﬁt this view of the dative, and (28), with the genitive, should be visible as extra limitative, because of the presence of the damaging οὐδείς. The genitives in passages (29) and (30), despite the fact that, face up to this interpretation, as neither rather includes the hallmarks of the limitative style. either have plural topics, to ensure, and hence 32 33 The textual content the following depends upon Stephanus’ conjecture of κωμάζει for the garbled readings of the MSS. yet they're all not less than constant in having the dative of time (though a few overlook the item τῇ). See additionally HG 1. 2. four (καὶ τῆς ἐπιούσης νυκτὸς ἐνέβαλον εἰς τὴν Λυδίαν) and Cyr. 7. 2. three (τῆς ἐπιούσης νυκτὸς ἀναβιβάζει Χαλδαίους τε καὶ Πέρσας). 136 x e n op h on may well probably be noticeable as describing the multiplicity of occasions which may set off the limitative. yet a plural verb is obviously now not adequate by itself to warrant this sort of reading;34 nor do both of the 2 additional passages with τῆς ἐπιούσης νυκτός (see n. 33) demand a limitative interpreting. regularly, the similarity of the passages with the genitive and dative presents credible proof that there's anything as regards to unfastened edition within the case utilization the following: the genitive is the popular case for the punctual expressions of νύξ (recall that there are forty six× with (τῆς) νυκτός with no extra modiﬁer), most likely simply because it is a noun that happens so conveniently in modalhabitual structures; yet, whilst a demonstrative can also be current, this tendency might be overridden by way of assimilation to the datives of time with ἡμέρα.