By Donald Kagan

This publication, the second one quantity in Donald Kagan's tetralogy concerning the Peloponnesian conflict, is a provocative and tightly argued historical past of the 1st ten years of the warfare. Taking a chronological strategy that enables him to offer at each one level the alternatives that have been open to each side within the clash, Kagan makes a speciality of political, fiscal, diplomatic, and army advancements. He evaluates the techniques utilized by either side and reconsiders the jobs performed via numerous key participants.

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If now not, they'd a minimum of wreak havoc at the Peloponnesian coastal towns. 21 consistent with. 35. 1. Miltner (UPerikles," 782-783) rejects this assertion, noticing basically the 1st 1/2 it. Beloch (GG2 lb, 308), after all, is completely satisfied to simply accept the 1st part, that is destructive to Pericles. De Sanctis, notwithstanding, who's under no circumstances biased opposed to Pericles, says that the crusade was once undertaken "per acquietare con l. a. condotta energetica della guerra maritima los angeles esasperazione degli Ateniese" (Pericle, 261) . 22 THE PLAGUE seventy seven Such, we may well think, used to be the aim of the second one Athenian naval excursion: now not the start of a brand new method, however the elevating of the outdated one to a brand new point of depth. Pericles used to be pressured to arrive this new point simply because his method used to be now not operating good sufficient. The Spartans, as we've seen, gave no facts of yielding. Archidamus himself, in whom Pericles needs to placed the best desire of seeing cause, had now led a moment invasion of Attica and used to be methodically devastating the total territory. Hopes for a fast victory have been dim, whereas the Athenian treasury was once being tired by means of the unforeseen stubbornness of Potidaea. Even earlier than the outbreak of the plague Pericles should have learned that he couldn't struggle the struggle he had deliberate yet needs to elevate the stakes. He needs to damage the enemy adequate to make him yield with no, despite the fact that, leaving behind the elemental technique of a protective struggle. the looks of the plague made this coverage much more beneficial. the 1st year's fleet had sailed everywhere in the Peloponnesus to the Greek northwest. Pericles' strength went no extra than Prasiae at the jap coast of the nice peninsula after which grew to become again. we will in basic terms conjecture what else could have been comprehensive through so effective a strength, joined possibly through the 50 Corcyraean ships that had served in forty three I. it may, not less than have performed nice harm to Corinth and her colonies. Why did the powerful armada go back, having completed so little? Thucydides offers us one clue-the returning Athenians chanced on that the Spartans had already left Attica. 23 note should have reached Pericles of the Spartan withdrawal instantly after it begun, for Epidaurus and the opposite cities he visited are just a brief crusing distance from Athens. the arriving of the most military could strength the Athenians out of the Peloponnese the place their landings may be met via overwhelming forces, yet they can have long gone to the northwest as that they had the former yr. Plutarch says that the assault on Epidaurus failed as a result of plague. 24 that can not be actual, for the fleet and military have been good sufficient to do major harm after the failure at Epidaurus. The plague can have damaged out within the military at a while 28 1 . fifty six. 6. 24 Plut. in line with. 35+ 78 THE ARCHIDAMIAN warfare in the course of the excursion and hastened its return,23 however the comparable squaddies and sailors have been quickly despatched off on one other crusade, so the an infection couldn't were common nor the cause of go back decisive. The likeliest end is that Pericles broke off his excursion and back in haste simply because he had obtained be aware of the political influence the plague was once having in Athens.

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